ExplanationOnce you know what you want to talk about and you have written your thesis statement, you are ready to build the body of your essay.
The thesis statement will usually be followed by: the body of the paperthe paragraphs that develop the thesis by explaining your ideas by backing them up examples or evidenceTip: The "examples or evidence" stage is the most important part of the paper, because you are giving your reader a clear idea of what you think and why you think it Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and .
Development OptionsFor each reason you have to support your thesis, remember to state your point clearly and explain it.
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Then answer those questions, explaining and giving examples or evidence. Compare and contrast:Show how one thing is similar to another, and then how the two are different, emphasizing the side that seems more important to you.
For example, if your thesis states, "Jazz is a serious art form," you might compare and contrast a jazz composition to a classical one. Show your reader what the opposition thinks (reasons why some people do not agree with your thesis), and then refute those reasons (show why they are wrong).
On the other hand, if you feel that the opposition isn't entirely wrong, you may say so, (concede), but then explain why your thesis is still the right opinion. Think about the order in which you have made your points. Why have you presented a certain reason that develops your thesis first, another second, etc.
? If you can't see any particular value in presenting your points in the order you have, reconsider it until you either decide why the order you have is best, or change it to one that makes more sense to you This is a high-level course focusing on writing a research paper for publication. this academic year taking place at the South Kensington Campus..
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Does each paragraph develop my thesis? 2. Have I done all the development I wish had been done? 3.
Am I still satisfied with my working thesis, or have I developed my body in ways that mean I must adjust my thesis to fit what I have learned, what I believe, and what I have actually discussed?Linking ParagraphsIt is important to link your paragraphs together, giving your readers cues so that they see the relationship between one idea and the next, and how these ideas develop your thesis. Your goal is a smooth transition from paragraph A to paragraph B, which explains why cue words that link paragraphs are often called "transitions.
"Tip: Your link between paragraphs may not be one word, but several, or even a whole sentence. To show simply that another idea is coming, use words such as "also," "moreover" or "in addition.
"To show that the next idea is the logical result of the previous one, use words such as "therefore," "consequently," "thus" or "as a result.
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"To show you've come to your strongest point, use words such as "most importantly.
"To show you've come to a change in topic, use words such as "on the other hand Building a strong essay draft requires going through a logical progression of the body of the paper; the paragraphs that develop the thesis by explaining your .
"To show you've come to your final point, use words such as "finally. "IntroductionsAfter you have come up with a thesis and developed it in the body of your paper, you can decide how to introduce your ideas to your reader.
The goals of an introduction are to:get your reader's attention/arouse your reader's curiosityprovide any necessary background information before you state your thesis (often the last sentence of the introductory paragraph)establish why you are writing the paperTip: You already know why you are writing, and who your reader is; now present that reason for writing to that reader. Hints for writing your introduction:Use the Ws of journalism (who, what, when, where, why) to decide what information to give. (Remember that a history teacher doesn't need to be told "George Washington was the first president of the United States.
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Catch your reader by surprise by starting with a description or narrative that doesn't hint at what your thesis will be.
For example, a paper could start, "It is less than a 32nd of an inch long, but it can kill an adult human," to begin a paper about eliminating malaria-carrying mosquitoes Trinity Education Papers are a series of research publications showcasing the work of School of Education students, staff and their colleagues. The aim is to .
ConclusionsThere can be many different conclusions to the same paper (just as there can be many introductions), depending on who your readers are and where you want to direct them (follow-up you expect of them after they finish your paper). Therefore, restating your thesis and summarizing the main points of your body should not be all that your conclusion does.
In fact, most weak conclusions are merely restatements of the thesis and summaries of the body without guiding the reader toward thinking about the implications of the thesis. Here are some options for writing a strong conclusion:Make a prediction about the future. You convinced the reader that thermal energy is terrific, but do you think it will become the standard energy source? When?Give specific advice.
If your readers now understand that multicultural education has great advantages, or disadvantages, or both, whatever your opinion might be, what should they do? Whom should they contact?Put your topic in a larger context It is one of the world's leading research universities, and offers a wealth of study Through its education, learning and research, the University of Cambridge is It's an undeniable truth that getting work right is as good for people as it is for .
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Tip: Just as a conclusion should not be just a restatement of your thesis and summary of your body, it also should not be an entirely new topic, a door opened that you barely lead your reader through and leave them there lost. Just as in finding your topic and in forming your thesis, the safe and sane rule in writing a conclusion is: neither too little nor too much.
Revising and Proofreading the DraftWriting is only half the job of writing. The writing process begins even before you put pen to paper, when you think about your topic.
And, once you finish actually writing, the process continues. What you have written is not the finished essay, but a first draft, and you must go over many times to improve it -- a second draft, a third draft, as many as necessary to do the job right.
Your final draft, edited and proofread, is your essay, ready for your reader's eyes Research Papers. Name: Harm A. Weber academic center, post-occupancy building performance and comfort perceptions. Authors: Keelan P. Kaiser, David M..
RevisionA revision is a "re-vision" of your essay -- how you see things now, deciding whether your introduction, thesis, body and conclusion really express your own vision.
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It's a necessary, if somewhat tedious and tricky, job one that a friend or computer Spellcheck can help you perform. Tip: Revision should come before proofreading: why polish what you might be changing anyway?Hints for revising and proofreading:Leave some time -- an hour, a day, several days -- between writing and revising. You need some distance to switch from writer to editor, some distance between your initial vision and your re-vision.
Double-check your writing assignment to be sure you haven't gone off course. It's alright if you've shifted from your original plan, if you know why and are happier with this direction. You need to get your eye and your ear to work together.
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If you're not sure what's wrong -- or even if something is wrong -- make a notation in the margin and come back to it later. Watch out for "padding;" tighten your sentences to eliminate excess words that dilute your ideas.
Be on the lookout for points that seem vague or incomplete; these could present opportunities for rethinking, clarifying and further developing an idea. Get to know what your particular quirks are as a writer.
Do you give examples without explaining them, or forget links between paragraphs? Leave time for an extra rereading to look for any weak points . Invite questions and ask questions yourself, to see if your points are clear and well developed.
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Tip: Never change anything unless you are convinced that it should be changed.
Keep tools at hand, such as a dictionary, a thesaurus, and a writing handbook The University of Cambridge is committed to the concept of environmental set out in the 1994 Latham Report (Constructing the Team) and the 1998 Egan Report A BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment .
If you're using word processing, remember that computers are wonderful resources for editing and revising. When you feel you've done everything you can, first by revising and then by proofreading, and have a nice clean final draft, put it aside and return later to re-see the whole essay.
There may be some last minute fine tuning that can make all the difference.