How to Write a Research PaperHow to Write a Research PaperWhat is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation.
This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper.
To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge The University of Cambridge is committed to the concept of environmental set out in the 1994 Latham Report (Constructing the Team) and the 1998 Egan Report A BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment .
Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.
HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPICChoose a topic which interests and challenges you.
Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to “Buddhism”.
Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher.
Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized.
Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials. These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the other extensions stand for.
Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly.
Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as . tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .
Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if is unavailable, you can register as or via a service agent such as .
)Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.
Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval.
If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.
MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENTMost research papers normally require a thesis statement.
If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper.
The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important Research Papers. Name: Harm A. Weber academic center, post-occupancy building performance and comfort perceptions. Authors: Keelan P. Kaiser, David M..
Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence.
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The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. RankA thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.
It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas.
You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas.
Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from other writers. A thesis statement should do the following:Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the researchTell the readers what to expect from your paperAnswer the question you were askedPresent your claim which other people may want to disputeMake sure your thesis is strong.
If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to revise. You must check:Does my statement answer the question of my assignment?Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.
Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to your audience or does it simply state a generic fact?Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal.
It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author.
MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINEA research paper basically has the following structure:Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date)Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less)Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages)Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research:Materials and MethodsDiscussion and Conclusion etc.
An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas.
It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.
Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics.
The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.
Example of an outline: WE CAN HELP YOU With Your Research PaperHire Writer I.
How to write a research paper - a research guide for students
BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later YearsA The ultimate guide to writing perfect research papers, essays, dissertations or Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, .
Concluding statement The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing.
A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other.
Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic.
Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement.
find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.
Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTESOrganize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis.
This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.
You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand.
Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e. , IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of your outline: I. Accessing WWWGroup your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline.
WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFTStart with the first topic in your outline.
Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay.
write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.
Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.
cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA.
Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph.
The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. WE CAN HELP YOU With Your Research PaperHire Writer STEP 7.
REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFTRead your paper for any content errors Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and .
Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.
Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4.
Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6.
Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?RankRe-read your paper for grammatical errors. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability.
Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed.
Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3.
Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? 7.
Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? 9.
Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? 10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”? 11.
Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose” 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13.
Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. The Elements of Style was first published in 1918. There is also a particular formatting style you must follow.
It depends on the field of your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used.
The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities.
The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8th ed. Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc. ), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of source.
You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. TYPE FINAL PAPERAll formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher.
Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words.
Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline.
This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”If you feel any difficulties in writing a Research Paper, our writers and editors are always ready to help! WE CAN HELP YOU With Your Research PaperHire WriterFurther reading: